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HSC chemistry

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Module 2 | Acidic environment

Focus 4: Because of the prevalence and importance of acids, they have been used and studied for hundreds of years. Over time, the definitions of acid and base have been refined.

Lesson 1 | History of acid theory

  • Outline the historical development of ideas about acids including those of:
    – Lavoisier
    – Davy
    – Arrhenius

  • Outline the Brönsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases

  • Gather and process information from secondary sources to trace developments in understanding and describing acid/base reactions

Lesson 2 | Conjugate acid/base pairs

  • Describe the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base and a base and its conjugate acid

  • Identify conjugate acid/base pairs

Lesson 3 | Amphiprotic substances

  • Identify amphiprotic substances and construct equations to describe their behaviour in acidic and basic solutions

Lesson 4 | pH of salt solutions, neutralisation and safety

  • Choose equipment and perform a first-hand investigation to identify the pH of a range of salt solutions

  • Identify a range of salts which form acidic, basic or neutral solutions and explain their acidic, neutral or basic nature

  • Identify neutralisation as a proton transfer reaction which is exothermic

  • Analyse information from secondary sources to assess the use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to minimise damage in accidents or chemical spills

Lesson 5 | Buffers

  • Qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system

Lesson 6 | Titrations and determining concentration of vinegar

  • Describe the correct technique for conducting titrations and preparation of standard solutions

  • Perform a first-hand investigation and solve problems using titrations and including the preparation of standard solutions, and use available evidence to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the reaction between selected acids and bases

  • Perform a first-hand investigation to determine the concentration of a domestic acidic substance using computer-based technologies

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